Tunnel construction / Railway Tunnel Number One on the Northern Caucasus Railway
Railway Tunnel Number One at the 1896th Kilometer of the Northern Caucasus Railway
Construction of a new (even-numbered tack) and reconstruction of the old tunnel (odd-numbered track) at the 1896th kilometer of the Tuapse - Adler section of the Northern Caucasus Railway. Tunnel Number One extends between Shepsi and Vodopadny stations.
Phase I. New 589.41-meter long tunnel construction. The work was started in 2005 and was completed in May 2008.
Phase II. Reconstruction of the old 270-meter long tunnel. The work was started in December 2011 and completed in December 2013.
New Tunnel Construction
The new tunnel was built to run in parallel with the old one by the mining method using Alpine Miner AM-75 Roadheader for bench mining. The tunnel has a cast-in-place reinforced concrete lining with two-layer film waterproofing.
Scope of Operations:
- Preparatory operations (building support facilities, temporary buildings and installations, access roads, excavations, etc.);
- Tunnel cut-in and driving, starting from the northern tunnel entry, at the top bench using AM-75 Roadheader and temporary shoring with arched concrete bridges formed by guniting to in the shape of reinforced concrete shoring members (new technologies);
- Southern entry excavation for building an open-pit tunnel section including consolidation of the frontal and side slopes;
- Preparation of the open-pit operations site;
- Driving the tunnel lower bench starting from the northern end;
- Putting in place the film waterproofing in the tunnel;
- Erection of the permanent tunnel reinforced concrete lining using Saga Kogyo slipform;
- Putting in place a drainage system;
- Building new tunnel entries;
- Building approaches to the tunnel entries with two single-span bridges;
- Providing a contact network, communications, lighting, and electrical equipment systems;
- Completing operations aimed at upgrading the tunnel security infrastructure.
Second Phase: Old Tunnel Reconstruction
A decision was made to conduct reconstruction of the old tunnel, which was built in 1916 because the lining was in poor condition since it was deformed under the effect of a number of adverse factors (a single-axis rock pressure, landslides, and seismic events). The hazardous lining condition had threatened the safe and non-stop train traffic.
Scope of Operations:
- Tunnel cross-section enlargement;
- Tunnel approach reconstruction;
- Reconstruction of a rock protection wall and erection of new retaining walls at the northern and southern tunnel entries, with the total wall length of 280 meters;
- Reconstruction of an existing 52-meter long bridge;
- Building a new 10-meter long bridge;
- Repair of 1,600-meter long subgrade;
- Construction of shore protection structures to protect the tunnel against exposure to the marine factors;
- Beach construction.
A total of 10 single-track railway tunnels were built in the past within the railway section from Tuapse to Adler, which runs mainly along the sea shore. A total of 8 tunnels are in operation now. The shortest tunnel is 90-meter long, and the largest tunnel is a little shorter than one kilometer. Tunnel Number One has become the first two-way tunnel in the Tuapse - Adler section of the Northern Caucasus Railway after the reconstruction. The reconstruction work on the line was started as part of the preparations for the 2014 Olympics in Sochi. The reconstruction program includes the construction of tunnels for the second track and building two-way inserts, which are designed to boost up the traffic, improve traffic safety, increase the traffic speed, and make the line a two-way route.
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